National Electrical Code (NEC) Rules for Outdoor Wiring
Outdoor wiring is a complicated task that is best left to the pros. If you know nothing about electrical systems, it is best to not try your hand at such. Otherwise, you are risking not just injury to yourself, but you are also endangering others. Not to mention, it can start a fire and result in significant property damage.
When it comes to outdoor wiring, you must know the rules. You should work with licensed electricians because they know best. Nonetheless, if you opt to take care of outdoor wiring yourself, you must know some rules. Many of them are basic, especially when installing wires away from water sources or protecting the wires against environmental elements.
Keep on reading and learn from the valuable insights we’llbe sharing in this short guide. You don’t have to be an electrician to know the things mentioned below.
What is the National Electrical Code (NEC)?
Before anything else, let’s first talk about what exactly is the National Electrical Code. It is more than just a fancy name for the rules you need to follow in wiring and electrical systems. It is a stipulation of regional standards in electrical equipment and wiring in the United States. The code provides general guidelines that are aimed towards promoting safety.
Despite the inclusion of the word “national,” it isn’t a federally mandated law. Nonetheless, it is approved by the American National Standards Institute. They are applicable for residential, industrial, and commercial buildings. The first standards in the code were released in 1897. Since then, updates were released every three years. Experts in electrical systems review the code as needed and provide recommendations to ensure accuracy and timeliness.
All electricians must be aware of what the code indicates. It is a professional requirement that they follow these regulations. Nonetheless, the NEC is not just for electricians. Even for DIYers, basic knowledge is important as it can save lives and properties.
More than just for safety, knowledge of the NEC is also vital to avoid culpability. Commercial establishments, for instance, may face lawsuits when there is a fire, and it has been proven that they are negligent. It is the duty of a responsible homeowner or business owner to know the rules.
Rules on the Installation of Outdoor Receptacles
An outdoor receptacle refers to sockets that are installed on the exterior of a house or building. These are standard outlets in a detached garage, deck, and patio. They also include the outlets on posts or poles. This is where you will plug outdoor lights, appliances, pumps, and other things that will require electricity to run.
Without proper attention to the installation and use of outdoor receptacles, there is a high possibility of shock. This is a more serious concern outdoors than indoors because of the exposure to water, such as rain and snow. It can also cause a short circuit when someone plugs into a wet receptacle and will inevitably start a fire.
Installation of a Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)
In case you do not know, a GFCI is a type of protective equipment that automatically breaks the circuit once it detects a current imbalance. This means that when the incoming and outgoing power does not match, electricity is automatically disrupted. The NEC is clear with its recommendation of installing a GFCI in all outdoor receptacles. All 120-volt, 20-amp, and 15-amp outdoor outlets should have a GFCI. Outdoor areas of the house, such as decks and patios, should have a GFCI that you can also access outside the house.
Nonetheless, there are also specific instances when using a GFCI is not recommended under the NEC. The most common exception is when you have an outlet you use for de-icing or snow melting equipment.
The proper installation of GFCI is another important thing you must learn. The most important is protection against the outdoor elements. From stray animals to the rain, consider different things that can damage the GFCI. Using external mounts or brackets is also critical, which will create a tight seal on the connections. A gasket and cover plate are also essential to keep water and moisture away.
Need for An Outdoor Receptacle
Another necessary provision of the NEC is installing at least one outdoor receptacle in your home. There should be one at the front and another one at the rear of your home. It must be easy to access and should not be positioned more than 6.5 feet from the ground. This is important so that there is a receptacle that is ready for plugging any equipment that will be essential for saving lives and properties in case of any emergency.
There are also specific requirements when it comes to the installation of an outdoor receptacle, depending on its intended function. For example, if it is for your spa or pool’s powering pump systems, it should be more than ten feet away from the inside wall of the system. It should also be at least 6.5 feet above the surface. This will provide sufficient clearance to avoid contact with water, which will also prevent any serious electrical issue. The receptacle should also power only the pump and no other system to ensure its peak performance.
Cover the Outdoor Receptacles
It is not enough that you install an outdoor receptacle – must also meet the system requirements of the NEC, especially if it is in a damp location – it should have a cover. The receptacle should also be weather-resistant. Meanwhile, the cover should be weatherproof. This means that water will not penetrate the electrical system. Otherwise, it can be dangerous.
Receptacle in a Swimming Pool
If you have a permanent swimming pool on your property, you will want an outdoor receptacle installed at least six feet away from the pool. However, it should not be more than 20 feet away from the pool’s edge that is closest to the position of the receptacle. It is also important to have GFCI protection.
Rules on the Installation of Outdoor Lighting
Good light is a combination of both form and function. It should be outdoors to improve the aesthetics of your home and keep you safe, especially against intruders. Because of the exposure of the lights and their wires to outdoor elements, proper protection is a must.
Lights Rated for Wet Locations
Outdoor lights are prone to getting wet, especially if you live where it rains a lot. Even the slightest drizzle can be an electrical hazard. With this, the NEC requires that you use outdoor lights rated for wet or damp environments, depending on where you will install them.
Requirements for Low-Voltage Lighting
If you are using low-voltage housing outdoors, then there are specific requirements that you need to meet. For instance, they should not be installed five feet near hot tubs, pools, and spas. They should also be tested by an approved agency. They must meet the required certifications, which will prove their safety as well. If you have a transformer, install it in an area that is easy to access.
Rules for the installation of Outside Conduits and Cables
For the uninitiated, the conduits and cables outside the house may seem harmless. However, they can also be a fire and safety hazard, especially when exposed to elements that can disrupt their normal functions. With this, the NEC has several requirements for their installation to lessen the potential risks that they can pose.
Use the Right Wire
This is one of the most basic requirements when it comes to the installation of outdoor wiring. Start by identifying the purpose of the conduit or cable. You must find one that is specific to an intended application. Be familiar with the ratings. The latter will indicate the maximum capabilities of the wires, such as the power they can handle.
In most instances, you will need a UF cable for outdoor installations. This is more durable compared to the standard indoor wires. It resists harsh outdoor elements, including UV rays. This means that even with constant exposure to the heat of the sun, the wire will not breakdown. They are equipped with a high-quality sheath that offers superior protection. This will preserve its construction to avoid any problems.
The thicker the wire, the better. This will make it more capable of resisting external and internal damages that outdoor elements may cause. If you will be burying the wire, it is hard to inspect for visible damages, so there’sno easy way to tell if it is still working as it should. If it is thick, you can be confident that it will remain in its peak condition after a long period of use.
Bury the Wires Properly
Exposed wires can be a risk. So, you must bury them. This will minimize wear on the wire and prevent hazards. Nonetheless, it isn’tenough that you just dig into the earth and bury the wires carelessly. The NEC has some specific requirements on the most important things that you have to do.
If you have a UF cable, you can bury it directly without a conduit at a minimum of 24 inches. When backfilling the wires, you should use a smooth material and should have no rocks. Otherwise, they can strain the wire and result in premature wear. Nonetheless, for smaller capacity wires, such as 20 amps, the code specifies an exemption. You can bury it at only 12 inches.
Meanwhile, if you are burying a low-voltage wire, which means that it has less than 30 volts, you must position it at a minimum depth of six inches. Even if these wires pose lesser risk than their high-voltage counterparts, it does not mean that you should be complacent.
Keep Wires Out of the Water
The NEC also has recommendations when using wires near the water, especially in swimming pools and hot tubs. If it is overhanging a location with water, you should position it at least 22.5 feet above the water source. If you have a diving platform, observe the same minimum distance.
Proper Installation of Data Transmission Wires
From telephone to internet, data transmission wires connect us to our basic necessities. It is important to install them properly so that they will work as needed. The improper installation can be a risk. Not to mention, it can be a headache. It should be installed at a minimum of ten feet above the surface of any source of water, such as hot tubs and swimming pools. Also, you must use the right type or gauge of wire, making sure that they will withstand the outdoor elements.
Inform the Authorities Before Burying Wires
The last point that we’llbe tackling is not explicitly written in the NEC. Still, as a responsible electrician or homeowner, this is one thing that you need to do.
Call 811 at least three days before you start digging and burying wires. The utility companies in your area will be alerted. In turn, the company will send a representative to your property, and they will mark their power lines. This is important so that you won’t be digging on that specific spot. Otherwise, you are risking a catastrophe that will affect not just your home but possibly the entire neighborhood or community.
In summary, outdoor wiring installation is complicated. The pros know best, so you must work with an expert to ensure that the outdoor wires are correctly installed. Otherwise, you are risking electrocution and fire, among other problems. You might even end up being legally liable for any mishap arising from outdoor wiring installations. Take note of the things mentioned above to ensure the highest level of safety.